Nobel Laureates – graduates and employees of Project 5-100 universities:
Zhores Alferov graduated from V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University LETI) in 1952 with honors. Since 1988, Alferov has worked as the Dean of the Department of Physics and Technology of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University.
Alferov participated in the development of the first Russian transistors and germanium power devices. In 1961, Zhores Alferov wrote his first candidate dissertation and his second in 1970 – the latter devoted to heterostructures in semiconductors, which earned him his doctorate in physics and mathematics.
In 2000, Alferov received the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer (USA) for developing the semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics.
Soviet physicist. Graduate of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (1950).
Starting in 1948, Basov served as a lab assistant in the Lebedev Institute of Physics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, where he continued to work after earning his university diploma -- supervised by M. Leontovich and A. Prokhorov. In 1953, Basov obtained his candidate degree and in 1956 his doctorate.
Basov’s work is dedicated to quantum electronics and its applications. Together with his former professor A. Prokhorov, he determined the principle of amplification and generation of electromagnetic radiation by quantum systems which made it possible to create the first molecular oscillator (otherwise called a MASER). The scientist then introduced the idea of a molecular generator based on an inverse population, which meant creating a system where a group of molecules could exist in an excited state rather than in a lower energy state. This invention was widely applied in masers and lasers.
In 1964, Basov, Prokhorov and Charles Townes (a physicist from Columbia University in the USA) were awarded the Nobel Prize “for fundamental work in quantum electronics, which led to the creation of generators and amplifiers based on the laser and maser principle.”
Italian climatologist. Beginning in 2016, he headed the Laboratory of Climate Research at the Far-Eastern Federal University.
Valentini’s studies cover a large variety of issues, mainly in the field of ecology, forest ecosystems and various environmental protective measures. Professor Valentini pioneered the research into the role of forest systems in climate change and greenhouse effects by developing new technologies for the measurement of CO2 absorption by plants.
In 2007, Valentini was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize as a member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is involved in the risk assessment of global climate change caused by man-made factors. His team of scientists received the prize “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”.
Soviet, Dutch and British physicist. He was a graduate of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (1982).
In 1987, Geim earned his candidate degree in physics and mathematics at the Institute of Material Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He went on to become Doctor Emeritus at the Delft University of Technology, the Swiss Higher School of Technology in Zurich and the University of Antwerp. Finally, he attained the honor of being the Langworthy Professor at the University of Manchester.
In 2010, Geim won the Nobel Prize “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”, which he shared with another MIPT graduate Konstantin Novoselov.
French climatologist and glaciologist, director of the Institute of Pierre Simon Laplace (France). In 2016, he became Head of the International Lab for Climate and Environmental Physics at the Ural Federal University.
He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. His research made it possible to reconstruct the global history of our climate and deepen our understanding of climactic changes caused by human activity.
Terrence Vincent Callaghan
A British scientist whose research focuses on arctic ecology, biology and global climate change. Nobel Prize Awardee of 2007.
Since 2011, Dr. Callaghan has served as a Visiting Professor of Botany with the Biology Dept. of the Tomsk State University and the Chairman of the International Academic Council of TSU. In 1999, he spearheaded a Russo-Swedish project named Dynamics of the Tundra-Taiga Boundary, which was sponsored by the Swedish Royal Academy of Science and included TSU as one of the participants.
His contribution to arctic ecology and climate change research at TSU and strengthening of TSU reputation in the global academic community were recognized in April 2012 when he was awarded the title of Honorary Doctor of Tomsk State University.
Soviet mathematician and economist, pioneer and one of the founders of linear programming. Kantorovich lived in Novosibirsk from 1960 onwards; there he created and headed the Math and Economics Branch of the Institute of Mathematics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.
He won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1975 for “his contribution to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”. Kantorovich was one of the first scientists to work at the Siberian branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Soviet physicist, founder of the Institute for Physical Problems (IPP), where he served as director almost until the day he died. He was one of the founders of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
Kapitsa enrolled at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute (now called Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University) in 1914. He took a break from his studies to fight as a volunteer in World War I.
Pyotr Kapitsa is famous for his work in the field of low-temperature physics, the study of magnetic fields, and high-temperature plasma. He developed a highly productive industrial apparatus for the liquefaction of gasses. In 1921-1934, Kapitsa worked in Cambridge. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1978 “for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics, in particular for the discovery of the superfluidity of liquid helium.
Roger David Kornberg
American chemist. In July 2018, Roger D. Kornberg became “Doctor Honoris Causa” at Samara University.
Roger Kornberg studied chemistry at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and later completed his PhD in chemical physics at Stanford University, California, in 1972. After spending time at Cambridge, England, and at Harvard Medical School, he returned to Stanford in 1978, where he carried out the research that led to his Nobel Prize.
Roger D. Kornberg won the Nobel Prize for his research on the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription. An organism's genes are stored inside DNA molecules. From DNA, genes are transferred to RNA and then converted during protein formation. Concerning organisms with cells with delimited nuclei (eukaryotic cells), Roger Kornberg succeeded in mapping the process by studying yeast in the first decade of the new millennium. His contributions included determining the structure of the enzyme active in the process - RNA polymerase - and creating images of how the RNA molecule is constructed.
Soviet theoretical physicist. Landau was one of the founding fathers of theoretical physics and among the first professors of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
He was a member of the London Royal Society (1960); the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (1960); the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences (1951; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1960); the Academy of Sciences “Leopoldina” (1964); the French Physics Society; and the London Physics Society.
In 1962, Landau was awarded the Nobel Prize “for pioneer research into the theory of condensed states, in particular liquid helium.”
Barry James Marshall
Australian doctor, Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine (2005). In 2012 he became Professor Emeritus at the Sechenov First Moscow Medical University.
He was Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia.
Doctor Marshall was the first to prove that stomach ulcers are caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. This disproved the old medical theory that ulcers were the result of stress, too many spicy foods, etc. He won the Nobel Prize in 2005 “for the discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”.
Eric S. Maskin
American economist. Starting in 2010, he was – Chief Researcher at the International Research and Study Lab at the Higher School of Economics.
Among his other achievements were the highest levels of scholarship: Bachelor’s (1972), Master’s (1974) and Doctor of Philosophy (1976) – all degrees earned at Harvard University. Maskin taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1977—1984, where he achieved the rank of major professor in 1981), Harvard (1985—2000) and the Institute for Advanced Study (since 2000). He then served as President of the Econometric Society (2003). Maskin was also Chief Editor of Economics Letters. He became the Nobel Prize Laureate in 2007 “for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”.
Russian and British physicist.
In 1977, Novoselov graduated with honors from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology with a degree in Nanoeletronics. After graduation, Konstantin worked in Chernogolovka at the Institute of Microelectronic Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In 1999, Novoselov moved to the Netherlands, where he started working in the University of Nijmegen with Andre Geim. Geim and Novoselov moved to the University of Manchester in 2001. In 2004, Novoselov earned his PhD under the supervision of Professor Ian-Kees Maan.
In 2010, Novoselov and Geim won the Nobel Prize in Physics for “groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”. The laureates managed to demonstrate that multi-layered graphite has exceptional qualities derived from the complex and dynamic world of quantum physics. Novoselov is the youngest Nobel laureate in physics in the last 37 years (since 1973) and the only laureate born after 1961.
A physiologist and the founder of Russia's biggest physiology school, Pavlov was awarded a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 1904.
Ivan Pavlov was elected Professor of Pharmacology at the Imperial University of Tomsk (today known as Tomsk State University) on April 23, 1890 and worked there until he joined the Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg. Even when in St. Petersburg, he maintained a close relationship with Tomsk university, served on the nominations board and helped develop scientific research there.
Soviet physicist and chemist, academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (starting in 1932). Semenov worked at the Tomsk Institute of Technology (now Tomsk Polytechnic University) between 1918 and1920. In 1928, Semenov combined his work in Tomsk with his professorship at Leningrad Polytechnic (now Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University). He became one of the founders of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI. In 1951, Semenov started the Department of Explosive Physics – now Department # 4 of the school of Chemical Physics.
In 1956, Nikolai Semenov and Cyril Hinshelwood won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for “their research into the mechanism of chemical reactions”.
Soviet physicist. In 1945, Tamm organized the Department of Theoretical Nuclear Physics at the Moscow Institute of Mechanics (later re-named National Research Nuclear University MEPhI), which he headed. Many brilliant minds emerged from under his leadership at the institute.
Tamm’s research covers a variety of physics problems: quantum mechanics, radiation theory, nuclear physics, and elementary particles.
Igor Tamm won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1958 “for the discovery of Cherenkov radiation”.
Soviet physicist. The rapid development of the Soviet nuclear project started at the end of 1945 required many specialized universities and departments for the training of nuclear scientists. The first such specialized center was the Moscow Institute of Mechanics, which was later reorganized under the name ‘National Research Nuclear University MEPhI’. The best physicists of that era were invited to teach at this school. Ilya Frank was one of them.
Frank worked in partnership with other leading scientists and implemented a series of lectures, which became the basis of modern nuclear education at MEPhI.
Frank was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (with Cherenkov and Tamm) for the discovery and explanation of the phenomenon of Cherenkov radiation.
Harald zur Hausen
German scientist and doctor. In June 2014, Harald zur Hausen became “Doctor Emeritus” at Lobachevski University.
In 1955-1960, zur Hausen studied medicine in Bonn, Hamburg, and Dusseldorf. He worked at the Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology in Dusseldorf, went on to serve as assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and at the Institute of Virology in Wurzburg (1960-1969). At the same time (1960-69), he held the position of deputy head of the department of virology at the university of Erlangen-Nuremberg, and, starting in 1977, became a professor in the department of virology at the university of Freiburg. From 1983-2003 he was scientific director of the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg and professor of medicine at Heidelberg University.
In 2008, Harald zur Hausen won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of the papilloma viruses, which cause cancer of the cervix.
Swiss immunologist. In 2015 advanced to the position of director of the key excellence center “Experimental Immunity and Immunochemistry” at the Ural Federal University.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1996 for his discoveries relating to the “specificity of the cell mediated immune defense”.
Soviet physicist. He played an important role in the development of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, where he worked for 30 years (starting in 1951) as Professor of electrical physics. He taught nuclear physics and participated in the development of technologies for the acceleration of charged particles.
Cherenkov was generous in sharing his time with students and was in the habit of choosing the best among them to work in his lab at the Academy.
In his last years, Cherenkov headed the State Examinations Board, which presided over the “defense” of diploma projects. Many graduates of MEPhI are proud of having their diplomas signed by Pavel Cherenkov – a brilliant physicist.
Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics (with Frank and Tamm) for his discovery and explanation of Cherenkov radiation.
Israeli physicist and chemist. In 2014 he became head of the International Scientific Council of Tomsk Polytechnic University.
Schechtman earned his bachelor’s degree in 1966 from Technion (Israel Institute of Technology), his Master’s in 1968 and in 1972 his Ph.D. For the next three years Shechtman studied the qualities of aluminides of titan in the AFRL lab in Ohio, USA. In 1975, he came to work in the Department of Materials Science at Technion. In 1981-1982, while on sabbatical at the US National Bureau of Standards in Washington D.C., Shechtman discovered the icosahedral phase, which opened the new field of quasiperiodic crystals. In 2004, Shechtman joined the faculty at Iowa State University. He currently spends about five months a year in Ames on a part-time appointment.
Winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2011 for “the discovery of quasicrystals”.
Japanese-American scientist in the field of organic chemistry and marine biology.
Shimomura came to work in the Siberian Federal University after his victory in the second public contest to win a grant of the Russian Government for research headed by leading scientists. He headed the lab for the study of bio-luminescent biotechnologies.
On 24 September 2012, Shimomura became Professor Emeritus at the Siberian Federal University.
Professor Shimomura won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2008 for the discovery and use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP).