Security SensorsMay 25, 2021
We continue acquainting you with the research and discoveries made by Project 5-100 universities within the framework of May devoted to “New Threats and Challenges. Security".
Today we are focusing on developments in sensors. These devices are used to collect data and ensure security in all areas of human life. Taking into account importance and a wide range of areas where these devices are used, now many scientists are working on improvement of their functioning.
The developments of Roman Lee, a graduate student from the ETU "LETI" will improve the reliability of data transmission from sensors, their energy efficiency and resistance to external factors. The said was achieved thanks to the use of passive radio frequency identification technology. “If we talk about uniqueness,” explains Andrey Ukhov, the research supervisor of the graduate, “during this work a movement detection device that operates without a battery was created. The intended consumers of such devices are museums where each exhibit is equipped with a motion detector to prevent robbery. The absence of a battery increases the device life drastically as it can significantly reduce the cost of maintaining for the entire museum security complex.
Photonics Department employees are also involved in improving the operation of sensors in St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University. Dmitry Redka, associate professor of the department suggested monitoring the condition of the roadway using fiber-optic sensors of strain and temperature. Such devices collect data on changes in the structure of the road surface depending on the load dealt with it. The information obtained during the research will help to design reliable roads ensuring safety of movement, as well as to carry out their repair on time.
The highly sensitive fiber optic sensors investigated by Dmitry Redka also do not require power supply which allows them to be installed into an existing fiber optic network and receive data remotely. The operation principle of this wireless device is to use a Bragg fiber grating - a section located in the middle of an optical fiber in which the refractive index of light is changed due to ultraviolet radiation. Reflection of radiation in such a section always occurs only in a very small part of the spectrum, while the rest of the light is transmitted without any loss. In this case, the wavelength of the reflected light will depend on changes in external factors of influence: pressure, ambient temperature, etc. Fiberoptic sensors for measuring deformation and temperature were tested on one of the Latvian highways during its repair. “Our experiments,” says Dmitry Redka, “show that fiber optic sensors make it possible to accurately measure the deformations of the roadway. It is important to monitor the temperature, as when it’s warm the asphalt is more flexible and the deformation is increasing. Using our approach with constant monitoring, it is possible to determine the moment when the limit of permissible deformations will be exceeded in the selected areas, and consider this while designing new roads and repairing existing ones. "
MIPT scientists are solving the problem of sensors functioning in the air. Employees of the Department for Computer Modeling of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology are working on options for the optimal placement of a new type of domestic sensors for the air signal system in Superjet-100 aircraft. Such sensors increase flight safety in conditions of icing. The algorithms used in the calculations were previously recognized as the best in terms of speed and economy at the competitions of the International Workshop on High-Order CFD Methods (Cologne, Germany).
The problem under study is vital not only due to the climatic conditions of our country but also due to the research results obtained after the Airbus A330 plane crash in 2009. The decoding of the black boxes showed that during the flight all three receivers of the total pressure sensors (Pitot tubes) were frozen under the influence of low temperatures, because of which there was a complete loss of information about the aircraft speed with the subsequent disconnection of the autopilot.
Now SSJ-100 is currently the first aircraft that passed the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) international certification successfully thanks to more reliable sensors.
Today the issues of ensuring security in all spheres of human life are among the highest priorities. Scientists around the world are working on their solution. In the next review, we will continue acquainting you with the developments of the Russian scientists from the universities participating in Project 5-100 on this issue.